Ecological and Environmental Science & Technology in China: A Roadmap to 2050

作者:Jingzhu Zhao 2015-05-19 10:59 来源:《创新2050:科学技术与中国的未来》丛书英文版
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本报告在分析未来50年中国社会经济发展趋势的基础上,结合全球生态与环境变化的趋势,针对中国生态与环境的特点与趋势,揭示未来50年生态与环境科技领域的需求。基于国际生态与环境科技发展的态势,参考国外相关领域的路线图或战略,提出了中国至2051年生态与环境科技领域的重点研究领域和发展路线图,最后构建本路线图战略实施的保障体系。 本报告可作为科技、环保、林业、建设、国土资源等相关部门科技发展规划的参考资料,也可以供国内外研究中国中长期科技发展问题的专家学者参考。 As one of the eighteen field-specific reports comprising the comprehensive scope of thestrategic general report of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, this sub-report addresseslong-range planning for developing science and technology in the field of public health. They each craft a roadmap for their sphere of development to 2050. In their entirety, thegeneral and sub-group reports analyze the evolution and laws governing the developmentof science and technology, describe the decisive impact of science and technology on themodernization process, predict that the world is on the eve of an impending S&T revolution,and call for China to be fully prepared for this new round of S&T advancement. Based onthe detailed study of the demands on S&T innovation in Chinas modernization, the reportsdraw a framework for eight basic and strategic systems of socio-economic developmentwith the support of science and technology, work out Chinas S&T roadmaps for the relevanteight basic and strategic systems in line with Chinas reality, further detail S&T initiativesof strategic importance to China's modernization, and provide S&T decision-makers withcomprehensive consultations for the development of S&T innovation consistent withChinas reality. Supported by illustrations and tables of data, the reports provide researchers,government officials and entrepreneurs with guidance concerning research directions, theplanning process, and investment. Founded in 1949, the Chinese Academy of Sciences is the nation's highest academicinstitution in natural sciences. Its major responsibilities are to conduct research in basic andtechnological sciences, to undertake nationwide integrated surveys on natural resourcesand ecological environment, to provide the country with scientific data and consultationsfor government's decision-making, to undertake government-assigned projects with regardto key S&T problems in the process of socio-economic development, to initiate personneltraining, and to promote China's high-tech enterprises through its active engagement inthese areas


1 Significance of Research on the Roadmap for the Development of Ecological and Environmental Technology
1.1 Safeguard National Ecological System and Environmental Security
1.2 Promote Reasonable Urbanization and Regional Sustainable Development
1.3 Provide Scientific and Technological Support for the National Responding System of Public Emergency
1.4 Fulfilling the Obligations of International Environmental Conventions and the Requirements of National Environmental Diplomacy
2 Overview of Researches of Roadmaps and Plans for the Scientific and Technological Development in Relevant Fields in Foreign Countries
2.1 Environmental Technologies Action of EU
2.2 New Zealand's Roadmap for the Research of Environmental Sciences
2.3 Korea's Second Comprehensive Plan for Development of the Environmental Technology (2008…2012)
2.4 A Roadmap for a Living Planet of the World Wildlife Fund
2.5 Theme Action Plans-Phase I of the Natural Environment Research Council of UK
2.6 2008~2013 Scientific Strategies Formulated by Centre for Ecology and Hydrology,UK
2.7 U.S. Long Term Ecological Research Network and National Strategy of the Ecological Observation System
2.8 Perspective Plan for Researches Conducted by NOAA in the Future 20 Years
3 China's Socio-economic Development Trend and the Needs for Ecological and Environmental Science & Technology in the Next 50 Years
3.1 Population Growth Trend and Its Driving Force
3.2 Urbanization and Its Driving Force
3.3 Economic Development
3.4 Consumption Patterns
3.5 The Needs for Ecological and Environmental Science and Technology in the Next 50 Years
4 The Trend of Global Ecological and Environmental Changes
4.1 Climate Change
4.2 Air Pollution
4.3 Biodiversity
4.4 Freshwater
4.5 Waste and Logistics
4.6 Environment and Health
5 China's Ecological and Environmental Characteristics and the Evolution Trend
5.1 Biodiversity Is Being Destroyed and Wild Animals and Plants Are Decreasing
5.2 Accelerating Land Desertification and Serious Ecological Hazards Pose a Threat to National Arable Land
5.3 Serious Water Resources Shortage and Severe Water Environment Deterioration
5.4 Tightening Bottleneck on Environment and Resources, Exacerbating and Spreading Trend of Environmental Pollution
5.5 Increasingly Prominent Urban Environmental Issues with Structured,Composite and Compressing Characteristics
5.6 Gradually Emerging Hazards of New Pollutants and Persistent Organic Pollutants Lead to Increasing Ecological and Environmental Risks
6 The Development Trend of International Ecological and Environmental Science & Technology
6.1 Global Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation Have Become the Focus of Earth System Science
6.2 Relationship between Ecosystem and Human Well-being Has Become the Main Object of International Ecological Research
6.3 Integrated Research of Ecosystem and Human Activities, Natural System and Economic System Has Become the Main Idea in the Study on Global Ecological Issues
6.4 Quantitative Assessment and Scientific Prediction of Ecological and Environmental Changes Have Become the Scientific and Technological Objective of Ecological Research
6.5 Network Observation of Ecosystem, Simulation Experiment and Virtual Numerical Simulation Serve as the Primary Means for the Study on Comprehensive Ecological Issues
6.6 Environmental Technology / Green Technology Based on Material Cycle Has Become a Fundamental Approach to Solve Environmental Pollution
6.7 Concurrent Consideration of Ecosystem and Human Health Has Become the Theme of Environmental Health Research
6.8 Multi-scale Environmental Biogeochemical Process, Mechanism as well as the Coupling Characteristics and Modeling Are Important Means to Study Regional Environmental Issues
7 Key Research Areas of Ecological and Environmental Science & Technology
7.1 Global Climate Change and Its Ecological Processes
7.2 Restoration of Degraded Ecosystems, Reconstruction of Ecosystems and Conservation of Biodiversity
7.3 Urbanization and Environmental Quality
7.4 Land/River Basins/Coastal Zones Biogeochemistry Processes
7.5 Control and Restoration of Environmental Pollution
7.6 Clean Production and Circular Economy
7.7 Environmental Pollution and Health Effects
7.8 Advanced Monitoring and Forecasting Techniques
8 Generic Technology Roadmap for Areas of Ecological and Environmental Technologies
8.1 Multi-disciplinary Comprehensive Development of High-tech Technology
8.2 Ecological and Environmental Monitoring Platform and System Theory
8.3 Data Integration and System Simulation
9 Overall Roadmap for Ecological and Environmental Technology Development
9.1 Objectives to 2020
9.2 Objectives to 2030
9.3 Objectives to 2050
9.4 Roadmap to 2050
10 Security System and Implementation of Roadmap for Ecological and Environmental Technology Development
10.1 Launch Large Methodology-Targeted Research Projects
10.2 Establish Problem-Oriented Interdisciplinary Ecological and Environmental Basic Research Platforms
10.3 Build 2 to 3 Comprehensive Experimental Demonstration Areas(cities)with Multiple Objectives Optimization under the Guidance of the Concept of Scientific Development
10.4 Establish National Ecological and Environmental Three-Dimensional Monitoring … Data Integration…System Simulation Trinity Experimental Center
10.5 Cooperate with Neighboring Countries to Establish Global Change Asia Center